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Abstract: The article proposes a possible methodological perspective for conceptualizing Islam and modernity in the context of the dichotomy “traditional vs. modern”. The author outlines the different images of Islam in their specific sociological profiles as related to (and stemming from) the canon of norms that constitute the Islamic community and construct community ties, the basic resource of which are religious values. A scrutiny of the modes of difference and otherness through the lense of neighbourhood reveals otherness to be a latent conflict factor susceptible to political mobilization and populist manipulation. The author identifies the problem fields that generate the clash between secularism and Islam.
Keywords: modernity, Islam, identity, community, neighbourhood